SKGC By-Laws

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A

I. ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION 1.1

II. SKI HISTORY 2.1

III. BY-LAWS 3.1

A. MEMBERSHIP CLASSES, RIGHTS, OBLIGATIONS 3.1

B. ORGANIZATIONAL PROVISIONS 3.7

IV. TABLE OF FEES 4.1

V. FLIGHT REGULATIONS 5.1

A. DEFINITIONS 5.1

B. FLIGHT AUTHORIZATION 5.1

C. FLYING QUALIFICATIONS 5.1

D. FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS 5.3

E. APPOINTMENT OF FOO, INSTRUCTORS, TOW PILOTS 5.4

F. INSPECTION AND MANTENANCE 5.4

G. FLIGHT OPERATIONS 5.5

H. STANDARD AMERICAN SOARING SIGNALS 5.9

VI. FIELD OPERATION OFFICER GUIDE 6.1

A. AUTHORIZATION AND SCOPE 6.1

B. COMMENCING OPERATIONS 6.1

C. OPERATION ON THE FIELD 6.2

D. SECURING THE OPERATION 6.2

E. SUMMARY 6.3

VII. AUTHORIZATION GUIDELINES 7.1

A. SAILPLANES 7.1

B. CROSS COUNTRY 7.1

C. TOWING OF PRIVATELY OWNED SAILPLANES 7.2

VIII. POLICY 8.1

A. DOCUMENTATION 8.1

B. SELF INSURANCE 8.1

C. TOWPLANE RESERVE FUND 8.1

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION

1.1

I. ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION

(COPIES OF 3 DOCUMENTS)

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

SKI HISTORY

2.1

II. SKI HISTORY

The formal incorporation of Silent Knights in 1971 came about through the combined

efforts of several key mid-Iowa soaring enthusiasts.

By incorporating, these individuals provided for our original organization frame work, and

established Silent Knights as a non-profit organization with the State of Iowa.

The real roots of Silent Knights dates back to 1967 when Bob Nady returned to the Ames

area after an extended work assignment in India. Having learned to soar in India with

many British-taught enthusiasts, Bob sought other potential “glider guiders” in Central

Iowa.

Eventually, Bob met Jack Smith and Carl Zeliadt who brought with them the first tow plane

(Jack’s Stinson 108) and Carl’s experience in aircraft repairs.

Many others joined this original group during these early years. They included John

Greiner, who among other things, drove back from Kansas in an ice storm pulling the club’s

Bergfalke MU-13E. George Kizer, who spent many hours towing sailplanes into the air,

became the club’s most experienced tow pilot.

As word spread of Silent Knight activities, the club began to acquire more members. Since

about 1975 the club has grown steadily and concurrently expanded its activities.

From the very beginning, much of the success of this organization has been due to its

members’ willingness to introduce soaring to newcomers. This enthusiasm for beginning

students will undoubtedly provide for the long term success of Silent Knights.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

BY-LAWS

3.1

III. BY-LAWS

A. MEMBERSHIP CLASSES, RIGHTS, OBLIGATIONS

1. CLASSES AND LIMITS

There shall be eight classes of membership with maximums for each class as

follows: Active member (unlimited), Time Pay Active member (unlimited),

Inactive member (twenty), Family member (unlimited), Associate member

(fifteen), Honorary member (five), Student Class member (unlimited) and

Visiting member (two).

2. QUALIFICATIONS

(A) GENERAL QUALIFICATIONS: Membership in the Club shall be restricted

to those people interested in soaring. They shall also meet current FAA

regulations regarding glider pilot qualifications where applicable.

(B) SPECIAL QUALIFICATIONS:

(1) INACTIVE MEMBER: Any paid up member may go on Inactive

status if he has been an Active member in good standing for at least

two years. While on Inactive status the member’s share fee shall

remain with the Club. See Section A.5(B) (1).

(2) FAMILY MEMBER: Family membership is available to persons of

the immediate family of any Active or Time Pay Active member at

the discretion of the Board of Directors. Except for the husband

and wife, such must be less that 23 years old and their Family

membership will terminate at age 23. Each member is responsible

for the financial obligations of their Family member(s). All Family

memberships end with the termination/conversion of the

responsible member.

(3) ASSIOCIATE MEMBER: Associate membership may be granted to

an individual by an affirmative vote by the Board of Directors.

(4) TIME PAY ACTIVE MEMBER: Members who are in the process of

purchasing an Active membership are Time Pay Active members.

See Section A.5(b)(2).

(5) HONORARY MEMBER: Honorary membership, by special

resolution of the Board may be conferred upon an individual,

provided the voting membership concurs with a two-thirds vote.

(6) STUDENT CLASS MEMBER: Any person who has a bonafide

interest in learning to fly sailplanes (and is not currently a licensed

sailplane pilot) and is enrolled full-time in a secondary or postsecondary

school qualifies as a student class member. Dues for

Student Class membership shall be set by the Board of Directors

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

BY-LAWS

3.2

(7) VISITING MEMBER: Any person who holds a private or

commercial glider license or is taking a checkride with a SKI

designated pilot examiner (4/08) and who meets the general

qualifications in (A) of this section may request Visiting Member

status.

3. RIGHTS AND PRIVILEGES

(A) GENERAL: Each member shall share equally the rights and obligations of

their particular membership class.

(B) SPECIFIC MEMBERSHIP RIGHTS AND PRIVILEGES:

(1) ACTIVE MEMBER: Active membership is granted only to those

who have paid the Active membership share fee in full. The active

member shall be entitled to participate in all Club activities, have

full voting privileges if he holds a private or commercial glider

license, partially refundable equity, receive all Club mailings, and is

the only class of member eligible for elective office.

(2) INACTIVE MEMBER: An Inactive member has the same rights

and privileges of an Active member, except the right to hold office

and flying privileges.

(3) TIME PAY ACTIVE MEMBER: Those applicants who participate in

the Time Pay plan shall have the same rights and privileges of an

Active member except they have no voting rights, are ineligible to

hold office and have no refundable equity.

(4) FAMILY MEMBER: A Family member shall have the rights,

privileges and obligations of the sponsoring member except they

may not vote or hold an elective office, shall not hold equity in the

property of the Club, nor be entitled to any refund of membership

fees.

(5) HONORARY MEMBER: Honorary members do not have the right

to vote, hold office or share in the Club property. Upon the

recommendation of the Operations Director, such Honorary

members may be permitted to fly the Club aircraft, provided all

checkout procedures are followed and the normal assessment for

flying such equipment is made.

(6) ASSOCIATE MEMBER: An Associate member may attend general

meetings, social affairs and flying sessions. Members of this class

have no flight privileges, except to act as tow pilot, cannot vote, hold

office, or have any equity in Club property.

(7) STUDENT CLASS: A Student Class member shall have flying

privileges as dictated by the fee schedule. He shall have no voting

rights, is ineligible to hold office and have no refundable equity.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

BY-LAWS

3.3

(8) VISITING MEMBER: A Visiting Member shall have flying

privileges as dictated by the fee schedule, but limited to a maximum

of five calendar days in any one year.

4. DUTIES OF THE MEMBERS

The duties of the members shall be to attend meetings, to conduct themselves in

a proper and fitting manner, to uphold the dignity of the Club at meetings and on

the flying field, to be alert and mindful of the Club’s interest; to exercise due

caution and safety in flying; and to observe all state, local, Club and government

flying rules and regulations.

5. APPLICATION

(A) GENERAL

Application for membership shall be in writing, stating name and

residence of the applicant, and signed by the applicant. All applications

must be filed with the Secretary.

(B) SPECIAL

(1) INACTIVE MEMBER

(a) APPLICATION FOR INACTIVE MEMBERSHIP:

Application for transfer from Active to Inactive status shall be

accomplished by mailing a request to the Club Secretary and

this request shall be reviewed by the Board of Directors within

thirty (30) days for decision and reply, with Inactive status to

become effective thirty (30) days after application. The

applicant shall not be delinquent in his Club payments.

(b) APPLICATION FOR ACTIVE MEMBERSHIP BY INACTIVE

MEMBER: Conversion from Inactive to Active membership

shall be by written request to the Secretary and the request

shall be reviewed by the Board of Directors within thirty (30)

days. If the request is approved it shall become effective

within thirty (30) days after application. If the member

seeking conversion to Active status has been Inactive less than

18 months, then this member must pay to the Club the

difference between Active and Inactive dues for the period of

Inactive status, unless waived by the Board of Directors.

(2) TIME PAY ACTIVE MEMBER: Automatic conversion to Active

Member occurs when the Active membership share fee is paid in

full.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

BY-LAWS

3.4

(3) STUDENT CLASS MEMBER: A student glider pilot may remain a

Student Class member for a maximum of one year or until

obtaining a private or commercial glider license. A Student Class

member may then convert to either a Time Pay or Active member.

(4) VISITING CLASS MEMBER: An applicant shall provide a written

statement requesting Visiting Member status and acknowledging to

abide by SKI Flight Regulations. Prior to flight, this statement must

be accepted by a SKI Instructor.

6. MEMBERSHIP SHARE FEELS AND DUES

All fees and dues shall be charges as set forth by the Board of Directors and/or

the By-Laws. Current fees and dues shall be tabulated in Chapter 4 following

adoption, and revised schedules shall be mailed to the membership on adoption,

and the dues and fees as set fourth therein shall be of force and effect as though

set forth in these By-Laws. Monies contributed in excess of the membership

share fees by individual members shall be kept on record by the Treasurer. These

excess monies will be considered 100% refundable and shall be refunded upon

payment of new membership share fees and with excess operation funds, in

accordance with sound financial planning and at the discretion of the Board of

Directors.

(A) MEMBERSHIP SHARE FEES

(1) ACTIVE MEMBER: The Active membership share fee will be

determined by a committee appointed by the President and shall

consist of the Treasurer and two members not holding an elective

office.

(2) INACTIVE MEMBER: The share fee equals the Active share fee.

(3) TIME PAY ACTIVE MEMBER: The share fee is the same as for an

Active member. The down payment and payment schedule will be

established by the Board of Directors each year.

(4) FAMILY MEMBER: There is no additional share fee for a Family

member.

(5) STUDENT CLASS, HONORARY AND ASSOCIATE MEMBERS:

There are no share fees for these membership classes.

(6) TRANSFER: Membership fees are not transferable.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

BY-LAWS

3.5

(B) MEMBERSHIP DUES

(1) ACTIVE, TIME PAY, FAMILY, INACTIVE, ASSOCIATE, STUDENT

CLASS, VISITING MEMBERSHIP: Dues are established by the By-

Laws and shall be published in Chapter 4 hereof and become of

force and effect as though a part of these By-Laws.

(2) HONORARY MEMBERSHIP DUES: Honorary members shall pay

no dues.

(C) SPECIAL SHARE FEE CONSIDERATION

In order to recognize the long term monetary contributions of specific

individuals who are responsible for Silent Knight’s acquisition of the

Luscombe and Bergfalke aircraft, these individuals shall be designated as

having one share fee ($500.00) at the time of by-laws adoption. This

share fee shall be non-refundable, but shall be in addition to other monies

or property which may already have been loaned to the club. After five (5)

years of active membership from the date of by-laws adoption, the

($500.00) share fee will become refundable in accordance with the

current fee schedule. Payment of dues shall be in accordance with the

current fee schedule. The individuals are: Hank Bentel, Ron Denton, John

Greiner, Elmo Hansen, Jim Herriott, George Kizer, Bill Layton, Bob Nady,

Jack Smith and Carl Zeliadt.

7. DAMAGES

(A) Any member shall be liable to the Club for damages suffered by the Club

resulting from his own carelessness or negligence and which damages are

not covered by Club Insurance. Violation of F.A.A. regulations, Club rules,

or local filed rules shall be presumptive evidence of negligence.

(B) In case of doubt of liability, a meeting shall be called by the Board to

decide on the case in question.

(C) Any damage assessments shall be payable by each and every member so

assessed before he shall be allowed to make any further use of the Club’s

equipment, and the period of time to pay this assessment shall be

determined by the Board.

8. INDEBTNESS

(A) Members are automatically ineligible to fly the Club equipment if any

dues, flight charges, or assessments are over fifty dollars ($50.00) for

thirty (30) days in arrears as per Club billings. The Treasurer must notify

all elected officers and the Director of Operations of ineligible members.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

BY-LAWS

3.6

(B) Any member whose dues, flight charges or assessments are six (6) months

in arrears may be expelled. Any member may petition to the Board to

waive this section, and the Board shall have the authority to extend,

dismiss or inflict this section at their discretion.

9. RESIGNATION, SUSPENSION, EXPULSION, DISIPLINE

(A) RESIGNATION: To resign, a member must present a written request to

the Board. Resignations shall not take effect until at least thirty (30) days

after written request is presented to the Board.

(B) DISCIPLINE: If the conduct of any member shall appear to be in willful

violation of F.A.A. regulations, By-Laws or other rules and regulations of

the Club or prejudicial to the Club’s interest, or if any member shall be in

default for the payment of his dues or any other indebtedness to the Club,

the Board of Directors may, by the affirmative action of the entire Board,

suspend or expel such member. Before taking such action, a written copy

of the charges must be served upon the member and an opportunity to be

heard before the Board of Directors in defense. A motion to reconsider the

suspension or expulsion of a member may be made at the next regular

meeting of the Directors, or at a special meeting called for this purpose,

but not thereafter. The Board has the authority to investigate accidents

and suspend member(s) of the Club for violation of good flying practices

and the authority to expel said member(s) for unsafe operation of the Club

equipment.

Dues shall continue during the suspended period, and the member shall be

reinstated automatically at the end of the suspension period.

In the event the Board of Director do not vote unanimously for or against

such action, a quorum of Active voting members at any meeting, may, by

majority vote, suspend or expel a member for violations of FAA

regulations, local field rules or for default in financial obligations to the

Club.

(C) TEMPORARY SUSPENSION: The Director of Operations may suspend

any member and thereby temporarily deny such member all flying

privileges of the Cub. The temporary suspension may be made for a

prescribed duration at the next meeting of the Board or of the general

membership. If no action is taking by the Board or general membership,

the temporary suspension shall expire.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

BY-LAWS

3.7

10. TERMINATION

A member may be terminated due to resignation, expulsion, or death. An Active

or Inactive member will receive partial refund of the current Active share fee.

Payment of this share fee will be made at the time, and in accordance with, the

payment schedule of the first new Active or Time Pay member joining the Club

following the Active or Inactive member’s request for termination. Should more

than one member request termination, their share fees will be returned in

accordance with the above method in the order in which written notice was

received by the Board. Any debt of a terminating member, whether for dues,

usage, or damages, shall become due at the time of termination. If the

terminating member has the right to a refund, any obligation will be deducted. If

the obligation is greater than the termination date, or claim for monies due will

be entered and processed through the proper court of law.

B. ORGANIZATIONAL PROVISIONS

1. MEMBERSHIP AND BOARD MEETINGS: NOTICE, AGENDA, QUORUM,

RULES

(A) The quorum for all membership meetings shall be at least a majority of the

Active voting membership, either present or written proxy, including at

least one (1) Club officer.

(B) The quorum for all Board meetings shall be at least a majority of the

Board.

(C) Upon written request of at least fifty percent (50%) of the Active voting

membership, a special meeting shall be called. All Active voting members

shall receive notice as to the time, place and subject matter of the special

meetings, and that subject matter shall be the first item on the agenda.

(D) Board meetings shall be held at the discretion of the Board or may be

called at the discretion of the President. The Board shall meet at least

once annually and no later than one (1) month before the end of the fiscal

year.

(E) Unless otherwise ordered by a majority vote of the Active voting members

present, or in the case of the board of Directors by a majority vote of the

Board, the order of business at all regular and special meetings shall be as

follows:

1. Roll call and call to order by presiding officer

2. Reading of minutes from last meeting

3. Reports and statements of offices and committees

4. Unfinished business

5. New or miscellaneous business

6. Adjournment

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

BY-LAWS

3.8

(F) Roberts Rules of Order Revised shall be the parliamentary authority on all

matters not covered by these By-Laws

2. VOTING

(A) Active and Inactive members who hold a private or commercial glider

license shall be allowed to vote on any matter requiring a vote of the

general membership, and they shall be entitled to only on such vote.

(B) To be eligible to vote, the member shall not have any charges or

assessments of more than $50.00 for more than thirty (30) days

previously to such voting. Treasurer shall supply a list of eligible voters to

the officers before any vote is taken.

(C) When practical, polling of the membership shall be conducted by the

Secretary who will mail a ballot to each eligible member at least seven (7)

days prior to a voting meeting. The member may return the ballot by mail

or bring it to the meeting.

(D) It shall require a two-thirds (2/3) vote of the Board members present to

effect passage of any resolution except when otherwise provided for by the

By-Laws or Code of Regulations.

(E) All Board members shall require a majority of the Board members present

to be passed.

(F) When Requested by at least three (3) voting members, a written ballot on

any voting issue shall be conducted by the Secretary.

3. OFFICERS AND BOARD OF DIRECTORS

(A) The officers of the Club shall be a President, Vice-President, Secretary and

Treasurer. Immediately after taking office, said officers shall, by a

majority vote, appoint a Director of Operations and a Director of

Equipment.

(B) The Board of Directors shall consist of the President, Vice-President,

Secretary and Treasurer and appointed directors.

(C) The Board of Directors shall have full authority to act in any or all matters

concerning the Club excepting those specified otherwise in the By-Laws.

Obligations of the Club must be presented to and approved by the Board.

(D) A seventy-five percent majority of the Active voting membership shall be

required to impeach an officer and/or a member of the Board. A

chairman, ad hoc, who shall not be a Club officer or director, shall be

elected by the membership in attendance, and shall preside.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

BY-LAWS

3.9

(E) In the event of a vacancy, the remaining members of the Board shall

appoint a temporary officer to serve until the next regular meeting at

which time a special election shall be held to fill the vacancy. The

candidates shall be nominated from the floor. If a permanent officer is not

elected within sixty (60) days after the vacancy occurs, the temporary

officer shall serve the remainder of the unexpired term.

4. QUALIFICATIONS AND DUTIES OF THE OFFICERS

(A) PRESIDENT: An Active member to be elected annually. Duties: (a)

Presiding officer at all meetings of the Club. (b) To appoint committee

chairmen. (c) Sign all acts or orders necessary to carry out the business of

the Club. (d) Act as representative of the Club to outside persons and

other organizations.

(B) VICE-PRESIDENT: An Active member to be elected annually. Duties: (a)

Presiding officer in the absence of the President. (b) Chairman of the

Board of Directors. (c) To assume the duties of the President in case of

illness, death, resignation or removal from office of the President.

(C) SECRETARY: An Active member to be elected annually. Duties: (a) To

record the minutes of all special and regular meetings of the Club. (b) To

record the minutes of all meetings of the Board of Directors. (c) To call a

meeting to order in the absence of the presiding officers. (d) To preserve

ports and documents of the Club except those specifically assigned to the

custody of others. (e) To carry on the official correspondence of the Club

and send notices of meetings to members. (f) Issue and attest all

certificates of membership and shall keep a membership book containing

the name and address of each member and the date of admission to

membership. (g) Give all notices required by law or by these By-Laws.

(D) TRESURER: An Active member to be elected annually. Duties: (a) To

receive, receipt for, disburse, record and be custodian of all funds

connected with the business of the Club. (b) Provide financial reports. (c)

Keep an accurate account of the finances of the Club on the books of the

Club prepared and furnished for that purpose, and all books shall be open

for inspection and examination by the officers or any committee of the

members appointed for that purpose. (d) At the expiration of the term of

office, he shall deliver all books, papers and property of the Club in his

hands, together with all monies and rights of the Club, to his successor in

office or to the President.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

BY-LAWS

3.10

(E) DIRECTOR OF OPERATIONS: An Active voting member appointed

annually by the new officers. The Operations Director must hold a private

or commercial glider rating as well as a private or commercial airplane

license with a minimum of 200 hours of logged time. Duties: (a) To plan

and schedule and keep an accurate record of all flying time. (b) To ground

any or all aircraft for the safety of members because of weather or other

hazardous conditions. (c) To make a report of flying activities to the Board

at each meeting as to violations of rules and other operational matters. (d)

To require a check ride at any time he feels a member is not proficient

enough in flying skills, and may temporarily suspend a member for

violations of rules and regulations. Such temporary suspension can only

be lifted at the next regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors.

(e) To serve on the Board of Directors.

(F) DIRECTOR OF EQUIPMENT: An Active member appointed annually by

the new officers. Duties: (a) To inspect and maintain all Club equipment

and report on the status of such equipment. (b) To keep records necessary

for proper accounting of operation of the equipment in close cooperation

with the Secretary-Treasurer. (c) To perform such work that he is able to

do within F.A.A. regulations and his own ability. (d) To ground any

aircraft at his own discretion for the benefit of the Club from a viewpoint

of safe operation. (e) To serve on the Board of Directors.

5. NOMINATIONS AND ELECTION OF OFFICERS

The President shall designate a nominations committee of three to present

recommendations to the membership. Nominations will be made directly from

the floor by Active members of the Club then present. The election of such

officers will take place at the first meeting after January 1. Only Active members

may be nominated and the election may be held by mail ballot. Officers elected

shall take charge and be installed at the first meeting after January 1. All officers

shall hold office for one year.

6. FISCAL YEAR

The fiscal year shall extend from January 1 through December 31.

7. FINANCE

(A) OPERATING EXPENSES: The Board of Directors shall determine fees

and flight charges necessary to provide adequate finances.

(B) DEPOSITORY: The Club funds shall be deposited in a reliable banking

institution and shall be made negotiable by presenting the signature of the

Treasurer.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

BY-LAWS

3.11

(C) LIMINT ON AUTHORITY TO EXPEND

(1) Limit on Board: No obligation shall be incurred by the Board in

excess of the funds on hand without membership approval.

(2) Limit on Officers: Any elected officer of the Club may spend up to

$250.00 for the Club needs or activities.

(3) Limit on Members: Members of the Club must obtain authorization

form an officer or the Board prior to any expenditure.

(D) AUDIT: Annually, at the end of the fiscal year, the books and accounts

shall be audited.

8. INSURANCE

Liability insurance shall be carried to protect the Club. The Club may either

purchase hull insurance to cover physical damage to aircraft or it may self insure

such risks. It is the individual pilot’s responsibility to determine prior to flight

that liability insurance is in effect for the particular aircraft, and if the insurance

is not in effect, it shall not be flown.

9. CODE OF REGULATIONS

The Code of Flying Regulations and any other regulations deemed necessary by

the members of the Club shall be adopted and have the same force and effect as if

a part of these By-Laws, and will be in accordance with current Federal Aviation

Regulations.

10. CLUB AFFILIATIONS

The Club shall become affiliated with reputable local, regional or national Soaring

Societies at the discretion of the Board.

11. CLUB SYMBOL AND IDENTIFICATION

(A) The Club may have an appropriate symbol which will best represent itself

in accordance with the ideals and purposes set fourth in the By-Laws.

(B) The Club members may have an appropriate identification card attesting

to their current status in the Club.

(C) Any terminating member must return their Club identification card to the

Secretary within ten (10) days. Such cards are loaned to members and are

Club property.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

BY-LAWS

3.12

12. AMENDMENTS

(A) Amendments, additions or changes to these By-Laws or to the Articles of

Incorporation can be effected by a seventy-five percent (75%) vote of the

Active members present and eligible to vote.

(B) In the event that the proposed amendment, addition or change is

accepted, then it shall be effective immediately unless otherwise

specifically provided.

(C) Each member shall receive a current copy of the By-Laws.

(D) Any change or amendment to the By-Laws can be made at any meeting

where at least two officers are presiding.

13. DISSOLUTION

Upon dissolution of the Club, three members shall be voted by the Club

membership as trustees to handle the liquidation of the assets thereof, as soon s

practicable, and pay all existing debts and liabilities in proportion to the final

available capital, including any money rightfully due to the members as refunds

in accordance with the regulations of the Club. Any surplus shall be donated to a

non-profit organization agreed to by a seventy-five percent (75%) majority vote of

the Active voting membership.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

TABLE OF MEMBERSHIP CLASSES, FEES, DUES

4.1

IV. TABLE OF MEMBERSHIP CLASSES, FEES, DUES

Active

Time Pay

Family1

Inactive

Honorary

Associate

Student

Class

Visiting

Member

Membership

Limit

NA NA NA 20 5 15 NA 2

Membership

Fee

$500 $5002 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Membership

Fee

Established

by Board of

Directors

Yes Yes Yes NA NA NA NA NA

Refundable

Equity (% of

Active Fee)

75% NA NA 75% NA NA NA NA

Dues:

Monthly

Yearly

Once/Year

$20

$20

$0

$20

NA

$5

$100/$2003

$40/day

Billing

Frequency

Monthly Monthly Monthly Yearly NA Yearly Monthly Daily

Indebtedness

Limit of

$50/30 Day

in Order to

Vote/Fly

Yes Yes Yes Yes NA NA Yes NA

Voting

Privileges4

Yes No No Yes No No No No

May Hold

Active4

Office

Yes No No No No No No No

Flight

Privileges

Yes Yes Yes No Limited No Yes Yes5

Standard

Flight

Charges

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes

Assessable Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes No

Club

Mailings

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No

1 Family membership must be sponsored by Active or Time Pay member. Except for

spouse, family membership terminates at age 23.

2 Payable $100 down, plus $10/month.

3 $110/year provides use of 2-22E and 1-19 only; $200/year provides use of all Club

sailplane equipment.

4 Active members have voting privileges and may hold elective office only if they hold a

private or commercial glider license.

5 Use of 2-22E and 1-19 only.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

FLIGHT REGULATIONS

5.1

V. FLIGHT REGULATIONS

A. DEFINITIONS

1. FIELD OPERATION OFFICER (FOO)

A member who has been authorized to organize daily flight operations and is

present at the field.

2. SKI TOW PILOTS

Persons specifically authorized to pilot the towplane during SKI flight operations

are SKI Tow Pilots.

3. SKI INSTRUCTORS

Persons specifically authorized to provide flight instructions in SKI operated

sailplanes are SKI Instructors.

4. SKI SOARING SITE

The normal location of flight operations of the Silent Knights Inc. This location is

the Ames, Iowa Municipal Airport.

B. FLIGHT AUTHORIZATION

All use of the Club equipment, flight training programs, cross country flying and other

necessary related requirements shall be at the discretion of the Board, as set forth in the

By-Laws. The Director of Operations will be responsible for flight activities as

authorized by the Board. The responsibility of conducting a specific flight operation is

delegated be the Director of Operations to a Field Operation Officer assigned for the

day.

C. FLYING QUALIFICATIONS

To qualify for flight privileges, a person must be a member, must be authorized to fly a

particular sailplane, and must be authorized to make the specific type of flight planned

(solo, P.I.C., cross country, back seat). To verify such authorization, each member will

be issued a SKI flight qualification card.

1. MEMBER

(A) Only members in good standing will be permitted to fly Club equipment.

Membership classes, which include flight privileges, are specified in the

By-Laws. Financial obligations to the Club mist be current as provided in

the By-Laws. Members must also assume the responsibility of being

familiar with current F.A.A. regulations and SKI regulations and adhere to

all applicable regulations.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

FLIGHT REGULATIONS

5.2

(B) In addition, a member must be in adequate physical condition to achieve a

safe flight. A member shall not fly who is knowingly physically

incapacitated to an extent which renders the person incompetent to fly

safely.

2. SAILPLANE

(A) All members must be check out in each SKI sailplane by an SKI Instructor.

General guidelines of the requirements for authorization to pilot each of

the SKI sailplanes may be found elsewhere in these regulations.

(B) Student solo endorsements expire in ninety (90) days. Therefore, each

spring all members without private glider ratings must not fly solo until

they receive specific authorization from an SKI Instructor. SKI Instructors

or the Director of Operations may, at any time, require any member to

take a check ride. Check rides are especially appropriate for members

without a solo flight within the preceding ninety (90) days.

3. FLIGHT

(A) The normal authorization to fly a particular SKI sailplane allows the

member to fly the sailplane solo, in the local area of the SKI Soaring Site.

Takeoff and landing must be at the SKI Soaring Site.

(B) Additional authorization must be obtained to act as Pilot in Command

(carry passengers), act as P.I.C. from the rear seat of a two place sailplane,

or to make a cross country flight.

4. QUALIFICATION CARDS

(A) The Director of Operations shall provide all members with a flight

qualification card. The card will contain a blank space for each specific

authorization which a member may earn. The appropriate blank space

will be initialed by SKI Instructors or the Director of Operations as each

specific authorization is granted.

(B) Each spring new cards will be distributed to all members. It is the

responsibility of each member to present the blank card to an SKI

Instructor and seek reauthorization.

(C) A current flight qualification card, properly signed, is valid evidence of

authorization. A FOO may permit flights within the authorization

indicated on a current flight qualification card.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

FLIGHT REGULATIONS

5.3

5. REVOCATION OF FLIGHT PRIVILEGES

Any member may be grounded for cause by the Field Operation Officer, an SKI

Instructor, or the Director of Operations. Suspensions by the FOO or by an SKI

Instructor shall not exceed fifteen (15) days. As specified in the By-Laws, the

Director of Operations may suspend a member until the next Board of Directors

meeting.

D. FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS

1. No member shall use the Club equipment for commercial purposes no shall the

Club equipment be rented for commercial purposes to any person or

organization.

2. No member shall use any of the Club equipment while under the influence of

intoxicating liquor. Violation shall mean automatic expulsion from the Club.

Such a person may, within thirty (30) days, petition the Board for readmittance.

3. No unauthorized pilot shall occupy the front seat unless accompanied by an SKI

Instructor or other member specifically authorized to act as Pilot In Command

from the back seat.

4. The towplane will be flown only by SKI Tow Pilots. The tow pilot shall be the

only occupant of the towplane during tow except as specifically authorized by the

Director of Operations.

5. All flights on Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays shall not exceed a period of

one hour unless approved by the Field Operation Officer. Flights shall be

restricted to the local area around the SKI Soaring Site except for properly

authorized cross country flights.

6. Aerobatics, including spins, are prohibited except as authorized by the Director of

Operations or an SKI Instructor.

7. Instrument flying and cloud penetration is prohibited except in accordance with

FAA regulations. SKI sailplanes are not properly equipped for such flights.

8. Cross country flights will be made only by persons having completed the SAA

Bronze Badge program and authorized by an officer and a SKI Instructor.

9. All members must be currently familiar with F.A.A. regulations. Violations shall

be reviewed by the Board for appropriate action. Each member must abide by all

applicable F.A.A. regulations.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

FLIGHT REGULATIONS

5.4

10. All aircraft must be flown within Placard Limitations and in accordance with

Silent Knights, Inc. flight practices.

11. All sailplane flights from the SKI Soaring Site during a SKI operation must

operate under the rules of the Silent Knights, Inc.

12. The minimum safe altitude required for thermalling flight is dependent on many

factors; including sailplane performance and handling characteristics, pilot

experience and local terrain and weather conditions. These factors should all be

considered by the pilot when selecting the appropriate minimum altitude at

which to discontinue thermalling flight. Thermalling flight in SKI equipment is

prohibited below 1000 feet AGL for student glider pilots and 800 feet AGL for

licensed glider pilots. Thermalling flight shall not be continued beyond the point

where a normal pattern entry may be accomplished.

13. No thermalling is allowed after pattern entry.

E. APPOINTMENT OF FOO, INSTRUCTORS, TOW PILOTS

1. The Director of Operations or an SKI Instructor may authorize a member to be a

Filed Operation Officer. To qualify, a member must have appropriate experience,

be willing to accept the responsibilities, and be thoroughly checked out under the

guidance of an SKI Instructor. Generally newer members are not authorized to

be a FOO and this most members are licensed private sailplane pilots before

becoming a FOO. Field Operation Officers are authorized to conduct flight

operations at their own discretion.

2. SKI Instructors must be FAA rated and will be appointed by the Director of

Operations. The Director of Operations may appoint a Chief Instructor to

supervise the training and proficiency of instructors. He may remove any

instructor from the active instructors’ list.

3. SKI Tow Pilots shall be appointed by the Director of Operations. The Director of

Operations is responsible for supervising the training and monitory the

proficiency of Tow Pilots. The Director of Operations may remove any tow pilot

from the active tow pilot list. Selection of tow pilots is subject to the following

provisions:

(a) Must meet FAA requirements for tow pilots,

(b) Must be a Club member in good standing.

F. INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE

1. The Field Operation Officer shall be responsible for the first preflight inspection

of the sailplanes and an examination of the tow line and other pertinent

equipment prior to the first flight of the day. These inspections do not relieve the

individual pilot of preflight responsibilities as defined by FAA regulations.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

FLIGHT REGULATIONS

5.5

2. The Director of Equipment shall be responsible for maintenance of the Club

equipment as set forth in the By-Laws.

3. Any malfunction of Club equipment shall be reported as soon as possible to the

Director of Equipment by the Field Operation Officer. Any malfunction which

renders a sailplane unsafe for flight should be noted on a placard posted on the

instrument panel of the sailplane so affected.

G. FLIGHT OPERATIONS

1. GROUND OPERATIONS

(A) A Field Operation Officer must be present whenever equipment is

removed from the tie-downs during each flight operations, and as

equipment is stowed.

(B) While towing to or from the take-off site in high winds, the FOO shall

assign both wing and tail walkers. Also, the wing walker, while the

sailplane is being towed, should always be on the side of the sailplane into

the wind.

(C) The sailplanes shall not be left unattended on the field at any time unless

adequately secured. Whenever a sailplane is parked on the field, it shall be

positioned so that any wind shall blow over the ship from a rear quarter. If

there is any possibility of wind, the lowered wing shall be secured to the

ground by adequate weight or tie-down.

(D) The Field Operation Officer shall decide which runway to use. If

conditions change, the FOO will change the active runway, consistent with

powerplane traffic.

(E) All members should be quick to help retrieve landing sailplanes. In high

wind conditions the ground crew should be ready to grab the wing tips as a

sailplane comes to a stop at the end of the roll out.

(F) Only vehicles required for SKI operations or pulling private trailers may be

on the field.

(G) The members making the last flight of the day for each type of sailplane

shall be responsible for returning the sailplane to its proper place and

securing all other Club equipment.

(H) The Field Operation Officer is responsible for stopping a flying operation if

the weather or other conditions, in his judgment, are or may become unfit

for flying.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

FLIGHT REGULATIONS

5.6

2. FLIGHT REPORTS

(A) All flights must be logged on a Daily Flight Sheet.

(B) Any accident involving injury to personnel or damage to equipment must be

reported immediately by the member involved to the Field Operation Officer. A

report in writing describing the incident shall be submitted to the Director of

Operations. This is in addition to any accident reports required by the N.T.S.B.

The above also applies to any unusual incident, such as landing off the airport

during a local flight.

(C) Any violation of these Flight Regulations must be reported to the Director of

Operations by the member involved or any other witness.

(D) Any aircraft malfunction should be noted on a placard and taped to the

instrument panel of the aircraft involved, thereby notifying pilots of the

malfunction.

3. FIELD FLIGHT PATTERNS

(A) A typical flight pattern to be used at Ames Airport is shown below. A typical

pattern speed is to be 50-55 MPH plus one-half the wind speed. Pilots of higher

performance sailplanes must be aware that the Club sailplanes are flown by

inexperienced pilots. More experienced pilots should accept the responsibility of

adjusting their patterns to minimize interference with less experienced pilots.

Direction of terms in pattern shall be consistent with those published for power

traffic.

4. SAILPLANE TOW SIGNALS AND PROCEDURES

In preparation for a sailplane launch, a sailplane wingman and a towplane starter assist

communication between the sailplane pilot and the towplane pilot. They also have a

safety function to ensure the launch does not conflict with other traffic.

(A) The sailplane pilot is in command. All take-off signals must originate from the

sailplane pilot.

(B) The sailplane wingman has the primary responsibility of ensuring there is not

conflicting traffic (remember the cross runway). The sailplane wingman should

place the sailplane wingtip on the ground whenever there is to be a delay. The

wingtip on the ground makes it obvious to the towplane starter and to any other

traffic that the take-off roll is delayed.

(C) The towplane starter must not give any signal except as directed by the sailplane

wingman. The starter should stand along the edge of the runway, but so as to be

within visual range of the towpilot during the initial take-off roll. The starter

should also check for conflicting traffic.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

FLIGHT REGULATIONS

5.7

(D) The following signals and procedures will be standard and used at all times while

operating Club equipment.

(1) Connect Towline: Make loop with thumb and index finger and interlock

loops of both hands like two links in chain.

(2) Take Up Slack In Towing: Sailplane pilot give thumb up signal to

sailplane wingman. Sailplane wingman lifts the wing level and rocks his

arm in an arc of 60 degrees each side of the vertical below the waist.

(3) Begin Take Off: Sailplane pilot indicates ready by fanning rudder.

Wingman, after checking for conflicting traffic, holds wings of sailplane

level and rotates arm continuously 360 degrees in plane perpendicular to

towline. Upon receipt of this signal, the towplane starter will similarly

indicate to the towpilot by rotating arm.

(4) Stop Operation, Emergency: Give a cut signal with hand across throat.

Sailplane pilot releases immediately. Wingman lowers wing and rocks

arms vigorously through overhead arc.

Airborne Signals

(5) Towplane Turn Right: Sailplane moves to the left of normal position.

(6) Towplane Turn Left: Sailplane moves to the right of normal position.

(7) Release Towline (towpilot to sailplane): Continuous rocking of towplane

wings.

(8) I Cannot Release (sailplane to towplane): Sailplane moves within visual

range of tow pilot (normally to far right), then rocks wings.

(9) I Cannot Release Either (towplane to sailplane): Tow pilot uses rudder

to yaw from side to the other.

5. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

(A) Sailplane cannot release. Sailplane pilot gives “cannot release signal,” towplane

tows the sailplane over soaring site (if possible) and releases tow line at an

adequate altitude when the sailplane is in high tow position. Sailplane (with tow

line attached) should cross boundary of landing area, if feasible, at an altitude

slightly in excess of the length of the tow line.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

FLIGHT REGULATIONS

5.8

(B) Both Sailplane and Towplane Cannot Release. After an exchange of appropriate

signals, towplane proceeds to a position directly over the departure airport. Once

in this position, the sailplane has the option to either 1) attempt to break the

towrope (while the towplane uses shallow banked turns to remain over the

airport), or 2) open dive brakes and move into the low tow position, indicating

that a landing on tow is desired. The towplane with then make a very gradual let

down at normal towing speeds while the sailplane uses adequate spoilers or

airbrakes to keep from overrunning the towplane The towplane will execute a

straight and relatively flat final approach at least one mile long. The towplane

should cross over the approach end of the runway with enough altitude to allow

the sailplane (in low tow position) to clear any obstacles on the approach end of

the runway. The sailplane will touchdown moments before the towplane, and

should close spoilers or airbrakes at touchdown to put a small amount of slack in

the tow rope. This slack will allow the most freedom of movement for the

towplane elevator/pitching motion required for flare and touchdown. The

towplane should continue its roll without use of wheel brakes. The sailplane

should use small amounts of wheel brakes to prevent overrunning the towline or

towplane. Both will roll to a stop at which time the rope can be disconnected. In

the even that the sailplane should overtake the towplane, it should clear to the

towplane’s right side.

(C) Discontinued Take-Off Roll (towplane failure, traffic, etc.). Towplane releases

tow line, favors left side of runway, clears to left. Sailplane releases tow line,

favors right side of runway and clears to right.

(D) Towplane Engine Failure (partial). Towplane will attempt to continue level flight

to get sailplane in favorable position for emergency landing. If level flight not

possible, towplane signals release.

(E) Towplane Engine Failure (complete). Towplane and sailplane release tow line

immediately.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

FLIGHT REGULATIONS

5.9

H. STANDARD AMERICAN SOARING SIGNALS

(Sixteen (16) Pictures of Soaring Signals)

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

FIELD OPERATION OFFICER GUIDE

6.1

VI. FIELD OPERATION OFFICER GUIDE

A. AUTHORIZATION AND SCOPE

1. PURPOSE

The purpose of the Field Operations Officer is to organize the efforts of individual club

members during a daily flight operation. However, all club members are expected to be

familiar with the Club By-Laws and flight regulations and exercise good judgment

during flight operations.

2. QUALIFICATIONS

To qualify as a Field Operation Officer, a member must be authorized by a SKI

Instructor or the Director of Operations as having been check out in all related

techniques and procedures. In addition, to remain current, a member must have served

as a scheduled FOO on a weekend within the past 12 months, in order that he be

updated on any change in techniques.

3. FUNCTIONS

The function of the Field Operation Officer is an extremely important and critical one,

requiring knowledge, organizing ability and sufficient aggressiveness to accomplish an

efficient flight operation. It is the purpose of this guide to dispel some of the confusion

that may exist concerning the duties of and the responsibilities of the FOO. Basic to the

function is knowledge, knowledge is general of soaring, and in particular, of the field

handling problems relating to sailplanes. This guide assumes a general familiarity with

soaring operations and ground handling as described in the SAA manuals and addresses

the problems and routines particular to Silent Knights, Inc.

B. COMMENCING OPERATIONS

1. Determine the runway most nearly into the wind from the position of the wind sock and

proceed accordingly. The wing walker should always be on the upwind wing tip and

should hold that up somewhat lower than level. In windy conditions, a person should

also be stationed at the tail and a third ride in the cockpit as appears prudent.

2. Before commending the flight operations, the FOO should wear an identifying mark or

badge, such as the red vest or armband. If, for some reason, the FOO leaves the scene or

takes a flight, this mark should be positively turned over to another qualified person to

act in his place.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

FIELD OPERATION OFFICER GUIDE

6.2

C. OPERATION ON THE FIELD

1. No sailplane should ever be left unattended on the field unless it is weighted or tied

down. All sailplanes shall be parked so that the wind will blow over the ship from a rear

quarter. The upwind wing tip shall be held or weighted down. The last person to fly the

sailplane is responsible for seeing it is either secured properly or is turned over to the

next pilot assigned to fly it.

2. Efficiency of the operation depends to a great extent on the alertness and aggressiveness

of the FOO. He should always have determined who is going to fly in the sailplane next

in line well before the towplane is back on the ground from the previous tow. The pilot

should be strapped in and ready to go so there will be no delay.

3. The FOO is responsible for seeing that the person running a wing tip or assisting the

towplane knows the signals and is aware of the routines. The FOO is also expected to be

aware of the qualifications of any person intending to fly. If in doubt, verify

qualifications via the qualification card.

4. A major responsibility is the flight data sheet. Make certain that every flight is logged

properly with the release altitude, sailplane, time aloft, person to be billed, and any

applicable notes. These are permanent Club records and should be treated accordingly.

5. On weekends, the maximum flight duration is one (1) hour, unless specified otherwise

by the FOO. If many members wish to fly, the FOO may restrict flights to less than sixty

(60) minutes so that all members may fly. The FOO many approve longer flights if no

one else is expected to fly the sailplane at the end of the hour. If in doubt, arrange for a

signal, such as the position of a car on the filed, so the sailplane pilot can check at the

end of the hour and determine whether he may stay longer.

6. Spectators must be directed to stay well off to the side and out of the way of the

operation to avoid accidents.

7. Occasionally circumstances may occur which can make it desirable to allow the FOO to

decide the order of the flights. When this occurs, the FOO must exercise responsibility

and make the decisions.

8. The FOO must halt any operation and secure the equipment in the event weather

conditions require it.

D. SECURING THE OPERATION

At the completion of the day’s operation, all equipment and any waste paper or pop bottles

must be picked up. The sailplanes must be moved to their tie-down in the same fashion they

were brought onto the field. After stowing the sailplanes, make certain that all equipment is

stowed and locked and the towplane tachometer time noted on the data sheet before leaving.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

FIELD OPERATION OFFICER GUIDE

6.3

E. SUMMARY

Remember, the key to an efficient operation is a competent and aggressive FOO. Do not be shy

about asking any of the Club members to assume duties such as chasing the rope, readying or

moving sailplanes, manning tow cars or attending to the flight data sheet. Be ahead of the

game and anticipate the situation requirements.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

AUTHORIZATION GUIDELINES

7.1

VII. AUTHORIZATION GUIDELINES

These guidelines are to give members an understanding of the requirements to obtain

authorizations. However, all members must recognize that the SKI Instructors and the

Director of Operations have wide discretion. They may authorize members who do not meet

the exact letter of these guidelines. They may also withhold authorization from members who

apparently meet the guidelines.

A. SAILPLANES

General

Flying qualifications for members are defined in Section (C) of the SKI Flight Regulations.

These qualifications must be met, as well as the additional guidelines shown below prior to

flying solo or acting as pilot in command.

Schweizer 2-22E

1. Read Pilot’s Handbook.

2. Calculate weight and balance for specific flight.

Schweizer 1-19

1. Pilot must have logged at least five solo or PIC flights within the past 90 days.

2. Read Pilot’s Handbook.

3. Calculate weight and balance for specific flight.

Bergfalke MU-13E

1. Pilot must hold private or commercial glider license.

2. Pilot must have logged at least ten solo or PIC flights within the past 90 days.

3. Read Pilot’s Handbook.

4. Calculate weight and balance for specific flight.

B. CROSS COUNTRY

Prior to attempting a cross country flight in a SKI sailplane, the following guidelines must be

followed:

1. Pilot must comply with aircraft authorization guidelines.

2. Pilot must have logged a minimum of 3 hours PIC time and 20 landings in the aircraft to

be used.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

AUTHORIZATION GUIDELINES

7.2

3. Pilot must have completed the SAA bronze badge program.

4. Authorization must be obtained from a SKI instructor.

C. TOWING OF PRIVATELY OWNED SAILPLANES

Prior to being towed into flight by SKI equipment, the pilot of a privately owned sailplane must

provide a signed statement agreeing to abide by SKI flight regulations, and certifying that the

particular sailplane meets all applicable FAA requirements for flight.

SILENT KNIGHTS, INC. MARCH 1984

POLICY

8.1

VIII. POLICY

This section shall be the place for recording policy decisions of the Board of Directors and other

miscellaneous information. Recording such information here helps provide continuity to

Silent Knights, Inc.

A. DOCUMENTATION

1. The Board of Directors shall ensure that the documents of SKI are kept current and

available to the membership. Modifications of documents other than the By-Laws and

the Articles of Incorporation shall be at the discretion of the Board. Ideally, proposed

modifications should be noted in the SKI Newsletter and discussed at a general

membership meeting prior to adoption by a Board. Boards of Directors must recognize

the importance of updating specific regulations or policies rather than issuing arbitrary

edicts which may be misunderstood or forgotten.

2. Every document should contain our name (SKI) and every page of each document

should contain a page number and the date of revision. Masters used for reproduction

shall be stored to ease the task of future updating.

3. The membership manual shall be reprinted in full every few years. Since people tend to

lose documents and because few people would actually insert change pages, reprinting

in full is the best way to provide many members with a current membership manual.

B. SELF INSURANCE

The Club does not purchase insurance to cover hull damage which may occur while the aircraft

is “in motion.” Thus, the Club could suffer a substantial loss if an aircraft is damaged during

take-off or landing. Although there is no specific sum of money set aside as a contingency

fund, Club officers and members must be aware of financial consequences of self insurance.

The By-Laws provide that a member is responsible for uninsured damages. If the damages are

uninsured because the Club did not purchase insurance, a member shall be liable for the first

$250 in damage. Any greater loss shall be shared by the entire Club, except in a case of

carelessness or negligence as determined by the Board of Directors, consistent with the By-

Laws’ Section 7 “Damages.”

C. TOWPLANE RESERVE FUND

Within the Club’s ability to provide the funds, and at the discretion of the Board of Directors,

the towplane reserve shall be cash or commitments which can be converted to cash to provide

for future towplane repair. The contribution to the fund shall be based upon the number of

hours flown and will be such that the fund will provide at least seventy-five percent (75%) of

the next anticipated major towplane expense. The purpose of the fund is to ensure the

continuity of our operation when the moment arrives that requires expensive repairs.